A Corpus of Linguae Ignotae

This is a corpus of linguae ignotae intended mainly for students of the Voynich manuscript, with a small amount of other material which they may also find of interest. A lingua ignota is defined very broadly as continuous passages of text found in mediaeval and renaissance literature which were either incomprehensible to the author of the works in which they are found or comprehensible to the author but expected to be incomprehensible to the reader. I do not cover the many names of spirits and angels found in esoteric literature of this period. The cutoff dates are roughly AD 600-1600.

Note that the corpus is supplied in the form of text files which do not display well in an HTML browser. To see tabs and line breaks, download the files as .txt. This has been done because plain text files are easier to analyse computationally.

Arabic

ibn-Hayyan

8th century (?): Mysticism

Kitab al-Hasil, attributed to Jabir al-Hayyan (Geber), is an Arabic alchemical text which gives the names of the metals gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, mercury and lead in various languages including the unknown Iskandari and poorly known Himyarite. KC Ryding, The Heritage of Arabic Alchemy: the Multicultural Matrix in Ahmad Hasnawi etc Perspectives arabes et médiévales sur la tradition scientifique et philosophique grecque, Paris, 1993, p. 235-48. I use the romanised text given by Ryding as I have not seen the original.

ibn-Hayyan Arabic Romanised: the Arabic version in Ryding's romanisation Download text file

ibn-Hayyan Himyarite Romanised: the Himyarite version in Ryding's romanisationDownload text file

ibn-Hayyan Iskandarini Romanised: the Iskandarini version in Ryding's romanisation Download text file

Picatrix

10th or 11th century: Magic

A Latin translation of Ghiyat al-hakim attributed to al-Majriti. A compendium of magical rituals, some of them involving utterances of mysterious words. Book IV chapter ii contains six short utterances and book I chapter v contains one longer utterance, said to come from 'terra Nigrorum'. I omit the many names of angels in the book, some of which recur in clm 849 and Trithemius.

Picatrix : the Latin version of the Ghiyat al-hakim / al-Majriti ; edited by David Pingree. Studies of the Warburg Institute ; v. 39 London, 1986. pp. 21; 180, 182, 183, 185, 186

Picatrix I-v: the utterance in book I chapter v Download text file

Picatrix IV-ii: the utterances in book IV chapter ii Download text file

The Climate Table

10th century: Science

The Climate Table (Klimatafel) is a short text about the supposed seven climatic zones of the world transliterated from Arabic into the Roman alphabet together with a Latin translation. It was written in north eastern Spain around the end of the tenth century and is preserved in various Catalan manuscripts and also Munich clm 14869. I follow the text given in J. M. Millás Vallicrosa, Assaig d'historia de les idees fisiques i matemàtiques a la Catalunya medieval (Barcelona, 1931, p. 290f.

Climate Table Arabic and Latin: Download text file

Climate Table Arabic: Download text file

Climate Table Latin: Download text file

Almagest

12th century: Science

The names of the constellations in the Latin version of the Almagest of Claudius Ptolemy, translated by Gerard of Cremona from an Arabic version. Paul Kunitzsch ed. Claudius Ptolemäus: Der Sternkatalog des Almagest (Edition arabisch und lateinisch) , Bd. I-III, Wiesbaden, 1986-1991.

I wish to pay tribute to the life work of Paul Kunitzsch on the Arabic scientific tradition. I believe that the reproduction (here and in connection with the Lostafel) of short extracts of the original text constitutes fair use.

Almagest Arabic: the Arabic text Download text file

Almagest Arabic Buckwalter: the Arabic text in Buckwalter transcription Download text file

Almagest Arabic Romanised: the Arabic text in DMG transcription Download text file

Almagest Latin: the Latin text Download text file

A Python script which I have used to convert text from different transcriptions of Arabic. Download Python script

Lostafel

12th century: Magic

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale Cod. Lat. 14754 f 244v Hanover, Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek IV 394 f 54r both 12th century

A text, apparently about fortune-telling, in Latin and transliterated Arabic. Paul Kunitsch, Eine bilingue arabisch-lateinische Lostafel, Revue d'Histoire des Textes, 6, 1976, p. 267-304. Kunitzsch offers a reconstruction of the Arabic original: for the reconstruction see also Charles Burnett, A note on two astrological fortune-telling tables, Revue d'histoire des textes 18, 1988, p. 257-62, reprinted in Charles Burnett, Magic and Divination in the Middle Ages, Aldershot 1996.

Lostafel Arabic H: the transliterated Arabic text, Hanover manuscript Download text file

Lostafel Arabic P: the transliterated Arabic text, Paris manuscriptDownload text file

Lostafel Latin H: the transliterated Latin text, Hanover manuscript Download text file

Lostafel Latin P: the transliterated Latin text, Paris manuscript Download text file

al-Buni

13th century: Mysticism

The Sufi mystic al-Buni in his book U?ul gives the names of God in Arabic and a supposed Syrian version.

Taken from Gawhary, Mohamed M., Die Gottesnamen im magischen Gebrauch in den al-Buni zugeschriebenen Werken, Bonn, 1968, p. 91-2. Transcription modified slightly to conform to the Hans Wehr version of the DMG system. Download text file

al-Dasuqi

13th century: Mysticism

A letter from the mystic Ibrahim al-Dasuqi to Muhammad in 'Suryani' ('Syrian'), an Arabic term for high-sounding, meaningless nonsense language.

"Sa´râni giebt uns mehrere Proben dieser fremdartigen Dialekte; das Arabische ist in denselben mit unverständlichem Kauderwälsch gemeugt, welch letzteres das Surjânîelement darstellen soll. Diese Proben sind Briefe des Ibrâhîm ud Dasûkî an seine Schüler u. a. m., unter Anderen auch ein Brief an Muhammed. Als Probe aus dieser Curiosität wollen wir einige Zeilen des Briefs an Muhammed hieher setzen."

Ignaz Goldziher, Linguistisches aus der muhammedanischen Mystik , vol. I, p. 166

Here and elsewhere, 'Romanised' Arabic is transcribed according to the system of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft as modified by Hans Wehr: 'Buckwalter' means the computer-friendly Buckwalter system.

al-Dasuqi Arabic: the text in Arabic script Download text file

al-Dasuqi Romanised: the text Romanised Download text file

al-Dasuqi Buckwalter: the text in Buckwalter romanisation Download text file

al-Idrisi

13th century: Legend

Al-Idrisi, Anwar 141, tells the story of treasure hunters one of whom became possessed and shouted words of an unknown language, 'kalam kahini', the priestly tongue, which a monk interpreted as 'This is the fate of all those who violate the sanctity of kings in their homes'. Discussed in Daly, Okasha, Egyptology : the missing millennium ; ancient Egypt in medieval Arabic writings , London, 2005, p. 44.

Anwar `ulwi al-ajram fi al-kashf `an asrar al-ahram = Das Pyramidenbuch des Abu Ga`far al-Idrisi (st. 649/1251) / eingeleitet und kritisch herausgegeben von Ulrich Haarmann, Beiruter Texte und Studien ; 38, Beirut, 1991, p. 131.

al-Idrisi Arabic: the Arabic text in Arabic script Download text file

al-Idrisi Arabic Romanised: the Arabic text Romanised Download text file

al-Idrisi Arabic Buckwalter: the Arabic text in Buckwalter romanisation Download text file

al-Idrisi Kahini: the Kahini text in Arabic script Download text file

al-Idrisi Romanised: the Kahini text Romanised Download text file

al-Idrisi Buckwalter: the Kahini text in Buckwalter romanisation Download text file

Darb al-Mandal

Nineteenth century: Magic

Darb al-mandal, divination by ink, is the type of Arabic magical invocation from which the Speculum Floron is derived. Two modern examples exist in print.

Darb al-Mandal Lane is taken from E.W. Lane, An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians , London, 1836, p. 248-9: collected by Lane in Cairo in 1827.

Darb al-Mandal Lefebure is taken from E. Lefébure. Le miroir d'encre dans la magie arabe , Revue africaine 49 p. 205-227, collected by G-B-M Flamand in Algeria in 1901.

Darb al-Mandal Lane Arabic: the Arabic text Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lane Arabic Buckwalter: the Arabic text in Buckwalter romanisation Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lane Arabic Romanised: the Arabic text in DMG romanisation Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lane English: the English translation by Lane Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lefebure Arabic: the Arabic text Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lefebure Arabic Buckwalter: the Arabic text in Buckwalter romanisation Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lefebure Arabic: the Arabic text in DMG romanisation Download text file

Darb al-Mandal Lefebure French: the French translation by Lefebure Download text file

Hebrew

Psalterium Cusanum

ca 900: Christian

A translation of the Lord's Prayer into transliterated Hebrew. Lapide p. 9. Originally from K.L.F. Hamann, Realgymnasium des Johanneums zu Hamburg 1891. TODO: see this, what is the name of the manuscript?

Psalterium Cusanum Paternoster Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew translation Download text file

Essener Sakramentar

9th century: Christian

Düsseldorf Landes- und Staatsbibliothek D1 f 216v

A sacramentary, contains the Lord's Prayer translated into Romanised Hebrew. Lapide p. 21.

Essener Sakramentar Paternoster Latin: the Latin text Download text file

Essener Sakramentar Paternoster Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Carnot 30

10th century: Christian

A manuscript of the Psalterium Triplex (the three translations of the Psalms by St Jerome) containing a Latin transliteration of the Hebrew version of parts of Psalms 2 and 44 (Vulgate 45). Patrologia Latina XXVIII 1523-8 (unfortunately I have not got a copy of pages 1527-8).

TODO: what is the location of these manuscripts?

TODO: the rest of Psalm 44

Carnot 30 Psalm 2 Latin: the Latin text of Psalm 2 apud Hebraeos. Download text file

Carnot 30 Psalm 2 Hebrew: the transliterated Hebrew text of Psalm 2. Download text file

Carnot 30 Psalm 44 Latin: the Latin text of Psalm 44 apud Hebraeos. Download text file

Carnot 30 Psalm 44 Hebrew: the transliterated Hebrew text of Psalm 44. Download text file

clm 17142

German, 12th century: Christian

A grammatical miscellany: f 90rv contains the 70 names of God in Latin and Romanised Hebrew. Matthias Thiel, Grundlagen und Gestalt der Hebräischkenntnisse des frühen Mittelalters , Biblioteca degli Studi Medievali 4, Spoleto, 1973, p. 206-7. Thiel also observes that an epistolary verse on f 112v ends with the salutation 'chere saloni lac', i.e. Greek 'chaire' and Hebrew 'shalom lakh'.

clm 17142 Nomina Dei Latin: the Latin text Download text file

clm 17142 Nomina Dei Roman: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

clm 7955 (= Munich, Codices Monacenses Latini)

Kaisheim 12th century: Christian

A Cistercian manuscript, f 154b contains the Creed and Magnificat translated into Romanised Hebrew. Bernhard Walde, Christliche Hebräisten Deutschlands am Ausgang des Mittelalters , Münster, 1916, p 3-4. Also in Lapide p 11-12.

clm 7955 Credo Roman: the Creed in Romanised Hebrew Download text file

clm 7955 Magnificat Roman: the Magnificat in Romanised Hebrew Download text file

Petrus Nigri

1446-7: Christian

clm 23,818 f 330v Translations by the Dominican Petrus Nigri of the Benedictus, Nunc Dimittis, Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary, Credo, Gloria and a petition of his own composition into transliterated Hebrew. Taken from Bernhard Walde, Christliche Hebräisten Deutschlands am Ausgang des Mittelalters, Münster, 1916, pp 85, 137-40. See also Lapide p 25-6.

Nigri All Hebrew: all the texts in Romanised Hebrew Download text file

Nigri Ave Maria Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Benedictus Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Credo Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Gloria Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Magnificat Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Nunc Dimittis Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Paternoster Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Nigri Petition Latin: the Latin text Download text file

Nigri Petition Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew text Download text file

Bibliander Paternoster

Christian Hebrew

Theodor Bibliander De Ratione communi omnium linguarum et literarum commentarius , Zurich 1548, p 234-5

The Lord's Prayer translated into Romanised Hebrew. Pinchas Lapide, Hebrew in the Church , Grand Rapids 1984, p 32-3. Download text file

Judeneid

16th century and later: Legal

The Judeneid (Jewry oath, oath more judaico ) was a form of words enabling Jews to testify in Christian law courts which included Exodus 20:7 in Romanised Hebrew.

Judeneid Hostau

A version from Hostau in Bohemia in a manuscript of 1659 but of earlier origin. Gerhard Eis, Forschungen zur Fachprosa , Bern and Munich, 1971, p 339-40 (original publication: Journal of English and Germanic Philology 52 1953, p 86-9).

Judeneid RA

1559

Neue und vollständigere Sammlung der Reichs-Abschiede, Welche von den Zeiten Kayser Conrads des II. bis jetzo, auf den Teutschen Reichs-Tägen abgefasset worden : sammt den wichtigsten Reichs-Schlüssen, so auf dem noch fürwährenden Reichs-Tage zur Richtigkeit gekommen sind ; In Vier Theilen / [Hrsg.: Johann Jacob Schmauß ; von Senckenberg. Vorr.: Ernst August Koch]. - 1967 Neudr. der Ausg. 1747. - Osnabrück : Zeller Erschienen: 1 (1747) - 4 (1747) III p 84 Judeneid WLRQ

Württembergische ländliche Rechtsquellen / bearb. v. Paul Gehring. Hrsg. v. d. Württembergische Kommission für Landesgeschichte. - Stuttgart : Kohlhammer. Erschienen: 1 (1910) - 4 (1985) I Die östlichen schwäbischen Landesteile / bearb. von Friedrich Wintterlin. - Stuttgart : Kohlhammer, 1910. - 17, 888 S. : Kt. p 221

Judeneid HR 1610

Alte vnd [und] Ernewerte Ordnung vnd [und] Reformation, der Römischen Keyserlichen Majestät, Keyserlichen Hoffgerichts zu Rotweil / Cvm Notis Et Observationibvs Pavli Matthiae Wehneri. - Franckfurt am Mayn : Rosa, 1610 (Franckfurt am Mayn : Bringer). - [16] Bl., 373 S. : Ill.

Online at

Judeneid Hostau German: the German translation of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid Hostau Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew version of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid RA German: the German translation of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid RA Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew version of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid WLRQ German: the German translation of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid WLRQ Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew version of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid HR German: the German translation of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Judeneid HR Hebrew: the Romanised Hebrew version of Exodus 20:7 Download text file

Western

Odo of Cluny

10th century: Mnemonic

"Odo of Cluny (d. 942) offers another very tempting 'clue'. In his section concerning the eight tones, the chordæ bear such names as buq, re, schembs, cæmar, neth uciche (uiche), caphe (kaphe?), asel, suggesse (successe) and nar. Many of these names have a decided Semitic physiognomy, and several are unmistakably Arabic."

H.G. Farmer, Historical Facts for the Arabian Musical Influence , London, 1930, p 31. See Patrologia Latina 133: 755-58. Download text file

Guido of Arezzo

11th century: Mnemonic

"The six notes of a hexachord are named after the first syllables of the lines of the hymn Ut queant laxis: ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. The concept of the hexachord as a mnemonic device for teaching plainchant melodies was first described by Guido of Arezzo..." Grove's Dictionary of Music s.v. Hexachord Download text file

The lingua ignota of Hildegard von Bingen

12th century: Mysticism

The German abbess St Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) was a mystic and visionary who received a revelation which she believed to be the language of heaven. It is preserved in two manuscripts: A. Wiesbaden, Hessische Landesbibliothek, Hs 2 (Riesenkodex) (1180s) and B. Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Cod. lat. 4o 674 (early 13th century). I have followed the text in Elias von Steinmeyer and Eduard Sievers, Die althochdeutschen Glossen (Berlin, 1895). The files labelled 'diplomatic' give the glosses exactly as they are in the manuscripts, the others emend the order following Steinmeyer and Sievers. I have tabbed the transcription so that Latin, German and the lingua ignota appear in different columns.

The A text, diplomatic. Download text file.

The B text, diplomatic. Download text file.

The A text emended. Download text file.

The B text emended. Download text file.

Cisiojanus

13th century: Mnemonic

Cisiojanus is a 13th century Latin mnemonic for the holy days of the church year, preserved in different versions in many manuscripts. I reproduce the text linked to by German Wikipedia Hermann Grotefend: Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, Lemma Cisiojanus, Online-Version von H. Ruth. (Weblink, 13-01-2007.) Cisiojanus was pointed out to me by Nick Pelling, who discusses it here.

Download text file

Barbara celarent

14th century: Mnemonic

William of Shyreswood, Introductiones in Logicam Paris Bibliothèque Nationale Cod. Lat. 16617

ca 1300-1350

The mnemonic verses used in mediaeval logic. William Kneale and Martha Kneale, The Development of Logic , Oxford 1962, p 231-3. Download text file

Speculum Floron and Speculum Alium

15th century: Magic

clm 849 37r-38r 39v-40v

This manual of magic rituals contains two invocations in an unknown language, thought to be garbled Arabic. The first, the Speculum Floron, occurs twice in variant versions. The second, for convenience here called the Speculum Alium, is similar to the Speculum Floron but not a variant of it. Richard Kieckhefer, Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century , University Park, 1997.

Speculum Alium Arabic: the Arabic text of the incantation Download text file

Speculum Floron Arabic A: the A text of the Arabic invocation Download text file

Speculum Floron Arabic B: the B text of the Arabic invocation Download text file

Speculum Floron Arabic Harmony: an interlinear comparison of the two versions Download text file

Speculum Floron Latin A: the A text of the Latin rubrics Download text file

Speculum Floron Latin B: the B text of the Latin rubrics Download text file

Hypnerotomachia

1499: Ludic fiction

The polyglot romance Hypnerotomachia , possibly by Leon Battista Alberti, is written in Latinate Italian. The story often makes mention of monumental inscriptions which appear in the illustrations: these are in Latin, Greek, Arabic and what is purported to be Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Latin and Greek are certainly correct and the Arabic appears to be: the hieroglyphs are not real Egyptian but an invention. Taken from:

Hypnerotomachia: a checklist of illustrations containing inscriptions Download text file

Lorem Ipsum

ca. 1500

The meaningless text used to display printed type. Taken from Wikipedia

TODO: See the article by Richard McClintock. Download text file

Steganographia

1499: Cryptography

The well known system of encipherment in Trithemius, Steganographia, involves apparent angelic invocations which conceal the plaintext as every second letter of every second word. For instance

murnea casmodyn bularcha vadusyn aty belron diuiel arsephonti si panormys orleuo cadon venoti basramyn

conceals the plaintext una uacat due soluunt

The 'filler' words (i.e. 'casmodyn vadusyn...' etc) are of interest in themselves as possessing a pronounced internal structure: the frequency of the word 'pean' and the extreme rarity of the letter g are also of note.

The naming convention for these files is as follows

I and II refer to books I and II of Steganographia

0 names files containing only the filler words

1 names files containing the plaintext letters in the ciphertext words

2 names files containing the filler letters in the ciphertext words

3 names files containing the ciphertext words

Ger refers to German plaintext

Lat refers to Latin plaintext

Both refers to German and Latin plaintext

Thus for instance Steganographia-I-1-Ger contains the ciphertext in book I where the plaintext is German, stripped of the filler words and the filler letters - that is the plaintext itself. Similarly, Steganographia-II-0-Both contains the ciphertext in book II where the plaintext is either German or Latin minus the words actually containing the ciphertext - that is just the invented filler words.

Steganographia I-0 Both Download text file

Steganographia I-0 Ger Download text file

Steganographia I-0 Lat Download text file

Steganographia I-1 Ger Download text file

Steganographia I-1 Lat Download text file

Steganographia I-2 Ger Download text file

Steganographia I-2 Lat Download text file

Steganographia I-3 Both Download text file

Steganographia I-3 Ger Download text file

Steganographia I-3 Lat Download text file

Steganographia II-0 Ger Download text file

Steganographia II-0 Lat Download text file

Steganographia II-1 Ger Download text file

Steganographia II-1 Lat Download text file

Steganographia II-2 Ger Download text file

Steganographia II-2 Lat Download text file

Steganographia II-3 Both Download text file

Steganographia II-3 Ger Download text file

Steganographia II-3 Lat Download text file

steganographia.py

This is a Python script designed to analyse steganographic ciphers of the Trithemian type: it selects the nth letter of every nth word and applies a rotating Caesar encipherment to the result. I have applied it to the file Trithemius Epistola with negative results (the sequence quamoper in the initial letters of 'quoties uenit ad me orat, petit et rogat' is intriguing but probably coincidental).

steganographia.py Download text file

Polygraphia

1518, 2007: Cryptography

Trithemius, Polygraphia book III, expounds a cipher in which each letter of the plaintext is translated into a word of an unknown language. No authentic ciphertext exists: these files consist of Steganographia I-1-Lat and Steganographia I-1-Ger enciphered using the Polygraphia III cipher. Generated using the Python script polygraphia.py. The text of Polygraphia can be found here.

Polygraphia Ger: the encipherment of Steganographia I-1-Ger Download text file

Polygraphia Lat: the encipherment of Steganographia I-1-Lat Download text file

polygraphia.py.txt: the Python script used Download text file

Trithemius Epistola

Johannes Trithemius Epistularum familiarum libri duo ad diversos Germaniae principes, episcopos, et eruditione praestantes viros p 153

A letter of Trithemius to Conrad, abbot of St Stephen's in Wurzburg, concerning his expulsion from the monastery of Spannheim. Taken from here Download text file

Ghent 1021A

16th century: Western magic

Ghent Universiteitsbibl. hs. 1021a ('G4')

From a compendium of magical invocations. Words of an unknown language, to be said 24 times over a seal of Solomon.

W. Braeckman, Middeleuwse witte en zwarte magie in het nederlands taalgebied , Ghent 1997 p. 474-6. Download text file

Enochian

16th century: Magic

MS Sloane 3191 (British Library) 1a-12b

The angelic conferences of John Dee and Edward Kelly. The final version written out by Dee. It appears from the manuscript that Dee first wrote out the Enochian keys on alternate lines of each sheet, phrase by phrase, then added the English translation as an interlinear gloss above the Enochian, and finally inserted revisions into the remaining space and the margins. the scans at: here

TODO: the verbatim transcript of the conferences.

Enochian Angelic A: Dee's preliminary transcript Download text file

Enochian Angelic B: Dee's revised transcript Download text file

Enochian English A: Dee's preliminary transcript Download text file

Enochian English B: Dee's revised transcript Download text file

Tuba Veneris

1580: Magic

Invocations of Trithemian appearance occurring in Tuba Veneris attributed to John Dee. Esoteric Archives

I acknowledge the work of Joseph H. Petersen in putting this and many other works of esoteric literature on the web. I believe that quotation of this brief extract of original text constitutes fair use. Download text file

Utopia

1515: Ludic fiction

The introduction to Thomas More's Utopia contains a poem (the Tetrastichon) in the invented Utopian language and a Latin translation of it. A Latin Hexastichon has no Utopian original. It is of note that the Utopian Tetrastichon is written in classical hexameters whereas the Latin translations are in prose.

The naming conventions for these files are as follows:

Hex/Tet/Both: the Hexastichon , the Tetrastichon and both

Lat/Uto/Both: Latin, Utopian and both

All: the entire text of the relevant passage

Utopia All Download text file

Utopia Both-Both Download text file

Utopia Both-Lat Download text file

Utopia Hex-Lat Download text file

Utopia Tet-Both Download text file

Utopia Tet-Lat Download text file

Utopia Tet-Uto Download text file

Rabelais

1532: Ludic fiction

Rabelais, Gargantua et Pantagruel book II chapter 9 contains sequences in various unfamiliar looking languages. Most of these have been identified as real human languages but the Antipodean, Lanternois and Utopian languages are believed to be inventions. The sequences in known languages do not have the same meaning as each other.

Rabelais Antipodean: the Antipodean sequence Download text file

Rabelais Lanternois: the Lanternois sequence Download text file

Rabelais Utopian: the Utopian sequence Download text file

Baner

17th century: Cryptography

PUG 576 f 239r (Pontifical Gregorian University)

The captured cipher letter of General Baner mentioned in the letter of Marcus Marci to Athanasius Kircher of 2 March 1641 PUG 557 f 92 ). For the original see here (recto) and here (verso) . Included here because published examples of nomenclators are extremely rare.

Baner All: the complete text Download text file

Baner Cipher: the cipher text Download text file

Baner German: the German portions of the text Download text file

Wanted and todo

Hildegard of Bingen, Lingua Ignota

Dante, Inferno

Old English Charms

Tenga Bithnua

Klimatafel

Desatir

Balaibalan